Universities must now investigate allegations of rape and sexual assault within institutions, even if the complainant has chosen not to go to police. If a student has been accused of rape, for example, the institution can look at the evidence and determine whether there has been a disciplinary infraction and sanction the individual responsible. While universities will not be able to determine if a criminal offence has taken place, they can judge if the student has violated their disciplinary code. As they aren’t arbitrating criminal cases, they don’t need to prove an offence took place beyond “all reasonable doubt” (i.e. to criminal standards), only that it more likely than not happened (i.e. to a 51 percent probability.)”It’s really exciting,” confirms Alice Irving of the University of Oxford. Irving is a criminal justice expert who teaches sexual consent workshops to students. She’s also a rape survivor who has documented her own experience artistically. In 2011, she was raped while still a student at Oxford and was met with resistance and disbelief when she reported her attack—local police minimized her experience, saying it was a case of “sexual regret,” not a crime. Irving has advocated for the rights of student victim-survivors since.