The Standing Rock Sioux’s struggle is part of a long and powerful history of indigenous-led environmental movements.  In Canada, First Nations groups have been leading large and powerful protests against the extraction of tar sands crude oil, which contaminates the area with toxic substances such as arsenic and mercury. In 2015, groups such as the Indigenous Environmental Network were central in the activism that led to Obama’s rejection of the Keystone XL Pipeline. Last year,REDOIL (Resisting Environmental Destruction of Indigenous Lands) was a key organizer of the “Shell No” campaign against Royal Dutch Shell’s proposed offshore drilling in the Chukchi Sea last year. These modern movements also call upon the history of state violence against Native groups.